I think there is so much truth in the proverbs that any story using one of them as a theme will convey something of that truth to the reader.
A lot of the proverbs will also generate character ideas. For example, the saying the love of money is the root of all evil conjures up for me characters who show that saying to be only too true. They will be weak, greedy characters whose greed gets the better of them.
So use the proverbs. There are so many to choose from, story ideas are bound to occur. Give it a go.